Eczema is a common skin condition that causes red, itchy, and irritated skin. This skin condition usually starts in infancy or early childhood and goes through adulthood. But it can occur to people at any age. The most common type of eczema is atopic. However, various other types of eczema can appear in any part of the body. 

What are the causes of eczema?

Understanding eczema completely is difficult as the causes behind this skin condition are unclear. But many types of research show that eczema is triggered by an overactive immune system. The condition flares when the skin gets exposed to external irritants that lead the immune system to overreact. Other pieces of research show that eczema occurs when the body is unable to make filaggrin, which is responsible to keep the skin moisturized and healthy. 

Common triggers for eczema

Eczema condition flares up when one or more symptoms of eczema appear. Various internal and external factors can trigger eczema such as:

  • Chemicals 
  • Cigarette smoke
  • Scratchy materials such as wood
  • Sweat
  • Stress
  • Animal dander 
  • Scented products
  • Pollens
  • Dust
  • Synthetic fabrics
  • Change in temperature
  • Food allergies, etc. 

Types of eczema

Atopic dermatitis

This is the most common type of eczema and often starts in childhood and gets milder or goes away by adulthood. Doctors refer to the condition as a triad when the person is facing asthma and hay fever with atopic dermatitis. Whenever the condition flares, you should seek a homeopathic doctor in New York for help. 

Common symptoms of atopic dermatitis

  • Rashes on elbows or knees
  • Small bumps appear that may lead to fluid on Scratch
  • The skin where the rash appears looks lighter or darker 
  • Babies often get atopic dermatitis on the cheeks and scalp
  • Skin gets easily infected when you scratch

The condition appears when the skin’s barriers get weaker against foreign elements like allergens or irritants. 

Common factors that can cause atopic dermatitis are:

  • Dry skin
  • Genes
  • Immune system issues
  • Environmental triggers

Contact dermatitis

If the skin gets red or scaly as a reaction to the substance you touch, you have contact dermatitis. This condition is of two types: allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis. When the immune system reacts to an irritant such as a chemical; it is irritant contact dermatitis. If the skin reacts to any irritant like metal or metal then it is allergic contact dermatitis. 

Symptoms of contact dermatitis

  • The skin starts itching and trunks red
  • Itchy bumps known as hives appear on the skin
  • The skin may thicken and feel scaly
  • Fluid-filled blisters

Causes behind contact dermatitis

  • Detergents
  • Jewelry
  • Bleach
  • Paint
  • Nickel
  • Latex
  • Soaps and perfumes
  • Skincare
  • Tobacco smoke 
  • Solvents

Dyshidrotic eczema

This eczema causes small blisters on hands or feet and the condition is more common in women. 

Symptoms of dyshidrotic eczema

  • Fluid-filled blisters in fingers, toes, and palms
  • Skin can be cracky or scaly
  • Blisters may itch or hurt

Causes of dyshidrotic eczema

  • Allergies
  • Stress
  • Exposure to substances like cobalt, chromium salt, etc.

Seborrheic dermatitis

In this condition, the skin gets scaly and oily patches that cause dandruff-like flakes. The patches appear when the body has more oil-producing glands. The condition mainly appears in the scalp, hairline, nose, back, and groin area. If seborrheic dermatitis develops in infants, it is known as cradle cap.

Symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis

Patches of flakey scales on the oily skin like hairline, upper back, scalp, armpits, etc.

Dermatitis patches may produce flaking skin usually on the face and scalp.

In people with dark skin tones, the patches may appear darker than the skin color. Whereas in white people, the patches appear lighter than other parts of the body.

Causes of seborrheic dermatitis

This condition can appear due to environmental and genetic factors. The trigger for this condition is stress or any illness. Due to this, the oil-producing glands get overly active which creates Malassezia yeast that lives on the skin’s surface. The yeasts start growling rapidly and lead to changes in the skin. 


  • Illness
  • Hormonal changes
  • Harsh detergents or chemicals
  • Certain medical condition
  • Medicines itch
  • Causes behind dyshidrotic eczema
  • Allergies
  • Stress
  • Damp hands and feet
  • Smoking tobacco products
  • Expose to certain substances such as cobalt, nickel, etc.


This condition is similar to atopic dermatitis where the skin becomes thick with scaly patches. 

Symptoms of neurodermatitis

  • Thick and scaly patches in arms, legs, scalp, genitals, back of the neck, etc.
  • These patches can bleed and may get infected
  • Patches can be very itchy when you are asleep
  • Causes of neurodermatitis

This skin condition mainly appears when the person is already dealing with another skin condition like psoriasis or other type of eczema.

Nummular eczema

In this condition, you can see round, coin-shaped spots on the skin. This condition is different from other types as it can itch a lot. 

Symptoms of nummular eczema

  • Round and coin-shaped spots
  • The spots can be very itchy

Causes of nummular eczema

It can occur due to a reaction to an insect bit or due to an allergic reaction to any chemical

Stasis dermatitis

In this condition, the fluid leaks out of weakened veins. The fluid causes redness in lighter skin tone, itching, swelling, pain, etc.

Symptoms of stasis dermatitis

  • The lower parts of the legs get swell
  • Legs may feel very itchy and dry
  • You can get open sores on the lower legs or tops of the feet

Causes of stasis dermatitis

This condition appears when the person has blood flow issues in the lower legs. The legs can swell up and form varicose veins.

Hand eczema

If the eczema is only appearing on the hands then the condition is hand eczema. This condition mainly occurs in people who have jobs like cleaning or hairdressing.

Symptoms of hand eczema

  • Hands get hyperpigmented, itchy, red, and dry
  • The skin may form cracks or blisters

Causes of hand eczema

This condition can be triggered by exposure to chemicals related to:

  • Cleaning 
  • Health Care
  • Laundry
  • Hairdressing

If the skin is very itchy and causing pain then you should seek a doctor. Certain OTC medications are available to relieve pain but you should get the condition diagnosed and then use any medication.